- (c. 1148–1241)Pope.Gregory was born Count Ugolino of Segni and was a nephew of Pope Innocent III. He was made a Cardinal in 1198, consecrated Bishop of Ostia in 1206 and was elected Pope in 1227. Earlier he had preached a crusade in north and central Italy and, as Pope, he excommunicated the Emperor Frederick II for insufficient enthusiasm for the project. Later he excommunicated him again for invading Lombardy and appropriating the rights of the Church in Sicily. In 1241 he summoned a General Council, but the Emperor prevented it from meeting and laid siege to Rome, during the course of which Gregory died. Gregory is remembered as the friend of St francis of assisi and as a protector of his order. He entrusted the Inquisition into the hands of the Dominicans who combated the Albigensian heresy and he also supported the Cistercian and Camaldolese Orders. He encouraged raymond of peñafort to make a collection of papal decretals and he commissioned an official edition of the works of Aristotle.J.N.D. Kelly (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (1986).
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